名前空間
変種
操作

Other operators

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< cpp‎ | language

 
 
C + +言語
一般的なトピック
Original:
General topics
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フロー制御
Original:
Flow control
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条件付き実行文
Original:
Conditional execution statements
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繰り返し文
Original:
Iteration statements
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文をジャンプします
Original:
Jump statements
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機能します
Original:
Functions
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関数の宣言
ラムダ関数の宣言
関数テンプレート
の歴史。インライン指定
例外仕様 (廃止予定)
noexcept指定子 (C++11)
例外
Original:
Exceptions
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名前空間
Original:
Namespaces
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タイプ
Original:
Types
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decltype specifier (C++11)
指定子
Original:
Specifiers
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CV指定
貯蔵期間指定
constexprの指定子 (C++11)
自動指定 (C++11)
alignas指定子 (C++11)
初期化
Original:
Initialization
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リテラル
Original:
Literals
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Expressions
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代替表現
ユーティリティ
Original:
Utilities
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タイプ
Original:
Types
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typedef declaration
型の別名宣言 (C++11)
属性 (C++11)
キャストします
Original:
Casts
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暗黙の型変換
const_cast conversion
static_cast conversion
dynamic_cast conversion
reinterpret_cast conversion
Cスタイルキャストと機能
メモリの割り当て
Original:
Memory allocation
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クラス
Original:
Classes
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クラス固有の機能特性
Original:
Class-specific function properties
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明示 (C++11)
静的
特殊なメンバ関数
Original:
Special member functions
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テンプレート
Original:
Templates
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クラステンプレート
関数テンプレート
テンプレートの特殊化
パラメーターパック (C++11)
その他
Original:
Miscellaneous
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インラインアセンブリ
 
Operator name Syntax Over​load​able Prototype examples (for class T)
Inside class definition Outside class definition
function call a(a1, a2) Yes R T::operator()(Arg1 &a1, Arg2 &a2, ... ...); N/A
comma a, b Yes T2& T::operator,(T2 &b); T2& operator,(const T &a, T2 &b);
conversion (type) a Yes operator type() N/A
ternary conditional a ? b : c No N/A N/A

目次

[編集] 説明

'関数呼び出し演算子は任意のオブジェクトの関数のセマンティクスを提供する.
Original:
function call operator provides function semantics for any object.
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変換演算子は、別の型に指定された型に変換します。演算子の名前が返されることを意図した型と同じでなければなりません.
Original:
conversion operator converts given type to another type. The name of the operator must be the same as the type intended to be returned.
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'三条件演算子は最初の式のブール値をチェックして、第二で全体の演算子句または結果の値に応じて、三番目の式を置き換え.
Original:
ternary conditional operator checks the boolean value of the first expression and replaces entire operator clause with the second or the third expression depending on the resulting value.
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[編集] ビルトイン関数呼び出し演算子

そのようなE(A1, A2, A3)として関数呼び出し式は、E、括弧内の式のことによると空のリストが続く関数の名前を表現、A1, A2, A3, ...、から構成されてい.
Original:
A function call expression, such as E(A1, A2, A3), consists of an expression that names the function, E, followed by a possibly empty list of expressions A1, A2, A3, ..., in parentheses.
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関数の名前を式ができます
Original:
The expression that names the function can be
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a)
関数を参照する左辺値式
Original:
lvalue expression that refers to a function
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b)
関数へのポインタ
Original:
pointer to function
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c)
メンバ関数を明示的に選択クラスのメンバへのアクセス
Original:
explicit クラスのメンバへのアクセス expression that selects a member function
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d)
暗黙のクラスメンバアクセス式、例えば別のメンバ関数内で使用するメンバー関数名.
Original:
implicit class member access expression, e.g. member function name used within another member function.
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Eによって指定された関数(またはメンバー)の名前がオーバーロードすることができ、オーバーロードが呼び出されるかを決定するために使用オーバーロードの解決ルール.
Original:
The function (or member) name specified by E can be overloaded, オーバーロードの解決 rules used to decide which overload is to be called.
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Eメンバ関数を指定した場合は、その関数の最終overrideする人は、実行時に動的ディスパッチを使用して、呼び出されます、その場合には、仮想かもしれない.
Original:
If E specifies a member function, it may be virtual, in which case the final overrider of that function will be called, using dynamic dispatch at runtime.
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関数を呼び出すには、引数として与えられたすべての式A1A2A3などは、任意の順序で評価され、各関数のパラメータはneccessary場合暗黙の型変換した後、それに対応する引数を指定して初期化されます。コー​​ルはメンバ関数に行われた場合、現在のオブジェクトへのthisポインタは関数が期待thisポインタに明示的にキャストしたかのように変換されます。各パラメータの初期化と破壊を意味し、例えば、そのパラメータのコンストラクタは、関数tryブロックは、考慮されていないながらも、例外は、関数内で定義された例外ハンドラをスローした場合、呼び出し元のコンテキストで発生。関数は、可変引数関数である場合、デフォルトの引数格上げは省略記号パラメータで一致したすべての引数に適用されます.
Original:
To call the function, all expressions A1, A2, A3, etc, provided as arguments are evaluated in arbitrary order, and each function parameter is initialized with its corresponding argument after 暗黙の型変換 if neccessary. If the call is made to a member function, then the this pointer to current object is converted as if by explicit cast to the this pointer expected by the function. The initialization and destruction of each parameter occurs in the context of the caller, which means, for example, that if constructor of a parameter throws an exception, the exception handlers defined within the function, even as a function-try block, are not considered. If the function is a variadic function, デフォルトの引数格上げ are applied to all arguments matched by the ellipsis parameter.
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関数呼び出し式の戻り値の型は、実際に呼ばれるのオーバーライド関数は、異なる型を返す場合でも、(virtualを無視して)キーワード)を静的バインディングを使用して決定した、選択した関数の戻り値の型です。これは、オーバーライド関数は基底関数によって返された戻り値の型から派生したクラスへのポインタや参照を返すことができますつまり、C + +)共変の戻り値型をサポートしています。 Eがデストラクタを指定している場合は、戻り値の型はvoidです.
Original:
The return type of a function call expression is the return type of the chosen function, decided using static binding (ignoring the virtual) keyword), even if the overriding function that's actually called returns a different type. This allows the overriding functions to return pointers or references to classes that are derived from the return type returned by the base function, i.e. C++ supports 共変の戻り値型). If E specifies a destructor, the return type is void.
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関数は左辺値参照や関数への右辺値参照を返す場合、関数はオブジェクトへの右辺値参照を返し、そうでなければprvalueある場合、関数呼び出し式の値カテゴリが左辺値である、のxValueです。関数呼び出し式は、オブジェクト型のprvalueであれば、decltypeのオペランドとして使用する場合を除き、完全な型を持っている必要があります.
Original:
The value category of a function call expression is lvalue if the function returns an lvalue reference or an rvalue reference to function, is an xvalue if the function returns an rvalue reference to object, and is a prvalue otherwise. If the function call expression is a prvalue of object type, it must have complete type except when used as an operand to decltype.
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関数呼び出し式は、構文内の値の初期化T()に、関数スタイルのキャスト式にT(A1)、とT(A1, A2, A3, ...)が型名である一時的なT、直接の初期に似ています.
Original:
Function call expression is similar in syntax to value initialization T(), to 関数スタイルのキャスト expression T(A1), and to direct initialization of a temporary T(A1, A2, A3, ...), where T is the name of a type.
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#include <cstdio>
struct S
{
    int f1(double d) {
        printf("%f \n", d); // variable argument function call
    }
    int f2() {
        f1(7); // member function call, same as this->f1()
               // integer argument converted to double
    }
};
void f() {
   puts("function called"); // function call
}
int main()
{
    f(); // function call
    S s;
    s.f2(); // member function call
}

Output:

function called
7.000000

[編集] 作り付けのコンマ演算子

コンマ式E1, E2において、発現E1が評価され、その戻り値は破棄され、式のE2の評価は(operator,ユーザー定義で、この能力が失われることに注意してください)​​始まる前に、その副作用が完了している.
Original:
In a comma expression E1, E2, the expression E1 is evaluated, its return value is discarded, and its side effects are completed before evaluation of the expression E2 begins (note that this ability is lost with user-defined operator,).
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コンマ演算子の戻り値の型と値カテゴリはE2、正確に、戻り値の型、2番目のオペランドの値カテゴリです.
Original:
The return type and value category of the comma operator are exactly the return type and the value category of the second operand, E2.
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さまざまなカンマ区切りのような関数の引数リストなどのリスト、(f(a, b, c))、初期化リストint a[] = {1,2,3}、または初期化文(int i, j;)でコンマはコンマ演算子ではありません。カンマ演算子は、そのコンテキストで使用する必要がある場合は、括弧で囲まなければなりません:f(a, (n++, n+b), c)
Original:
The comma in various comma-separated lists, such as function argument lists (f(a, b, c)), initializer lists int a[] = {1,2,3}, or initialization statements (int i, j;) is not the comma operator. If the comma operator needs to be used in that context, it has to be parenthesized: f(a, (n++, n+b), c)
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#include <iostream>
int main()
{
    int n = 1;
    int m = (++n, std::cout << "n = " << n << '\n', ++n, 2*n);
    std::cout << "m = " << (++m, m) << '\n';
}

Output:

n = 2
m = 7

[編集] 作り付けの変換演算子

組み込みの変換演算子(T)exprは、式を評価し、exprタイプTへの明示的なキャストを実行.
Original:
The built-in conversion operator (T)expr evaluates the expression expr and performs explicit cast to the type T.
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詳細な説明については明示的なキャストを参照してください.
Original:
See 明示的なキャスト for detailed description.
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[編集] 条件演算子

昇格算術型のLとRのペアごとに、Pはポインタ、メンバへのポインタ、またはスコープの列挙型であるすべてのタイプPのために、次の関数のシグネチャは、オーバーロードの解決に関与します
Original:
For every pair of promoted arithmetic types L and R and for every type P, where P is a pointer, pointer-to-member, or scoped enumeration type, the following function signatures participate in overload resolution:
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LR operator?:(bool, L, R );
T operator?:(bool, T, T );
LRは通常の算術変換Lで行わRの結果です。演算子は ":?"オーバーロードすることはできません、これらの関数のシグネチャは、オーバーロードの解決の目的のために存在する.
Original:
where LR is the result of 通常の算術変換 performed on L and R. The operator “?:” cannot be overloaded, these function signatures only exist for the purpose of overload resolution.
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条件演算子の最初のオペランドは文脈的に変換されますbool評価しています。価値評価と最初のオペランドのすべての副作用の両方が完了した後、結果がtrueだった場合、2番目のオペランドは評価されます。結果はfalseあった場合は、3番目のオペランドが評価され.
Original:
The first operand of the conditional operator is evaluated and 文脈的に変換されます to bool. After both the value evaluation and all side effects of the first operand are completed, if the result was true, the second operand is evaluated. If the result was false, the third operand is evaluated.
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条件式E1 ? E2 : E3では、以下の規則と制限が適用されます
Original:
In the conditional expression E1 ? E2 : E3, the following rules and limitations apply:
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1)
どちらE2またはE3(または両方)throw式である場合は、条件演算子の結果は、(左辺値から右辺値の後に、配列からポインタその他(投げない)式の結果である、とprvalueです、または関数へのポインタへの変換)。このような条件演算子は、一般的にconstexprのプログラミングで使用されてい.
Original:
If either E2 or E3 (or both) is a throw-expression, the result of the conditional operator is the result of the other (not throw) expression, and is a prvalue (after lvalue-to-rvalue, array-to-pointer, or function-to-pointer conversion). Such conditional operator is commonly used in constexprのプログラミング.
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2)
両方E2またはE3がタイプvoidのものがある場合、結果は型voidのprvalueです.
Original:
If both E2 or E3 are of type void, the result is a prvalue of type void.
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3)
E2E3異なるクラス型(または別のCV-資格を持つ同じ型)と同じ値のカテゴリを持っている。この場合、次のように試みは、他のタイプにオペランドの1つ(のみ)を変換するために構成されています
Original:
E2 and E3 have different class types (or same type with different cv-qualification) and the same value category. In this case, an attempt is made to convert one (and only one) of the operands to the type of the other, as follows:
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a)
彼らは左辺値であれば、左辺値参照型への暗黙的な変換が試行されます
Original:
If they are lvalues, an implicit conversion to the lvalue reference type is attempted
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b)
彼らはxvalues​​ている場合は、右辺値参照型への暗黙的な変換が試行されます
Original:
If they are xvalues, an implicit conversion to the rvalue reference type is attempted
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c)
彼らは右辺値であり、同じ基底クラス(または一方がもう一方の基底クラスです)をお持ちの場合は、オペランド(S)は、基本型の一時オブジェクトをコピー初期化することによって、ベース·タイプに変換されます.
Original:
If they are rvalues, and have the same base class (or one is a base class of the other), the operand(s) are converted to the base type by copy-initializing a temporary object of the base type.
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d)
彼らは右辺値であり、共通の基底クラスを持たない場合、暗黙的な変換は、他のオペランドの型にしようとしている.
Original:
If they are rvalues, and have no common base class, then an implicit conversion is attempted to the type of the other operand.
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4)
両方E2またはE3同じタイプのglvalues​​です。この場合、結果は同じ型と値のカテゴリがあります.
Original:
Both E2 or E3 are glvalues of the same type. In this case, the result has the same type and value category.
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5)
上記のすべての例は失敗し、どちらE2またはE3持つクラス型の場合は、次のオーバーロードの解決は、他の1つのタイプから最適な変換を選択しようとしている.
Original:
If all cases listed above fail, and either E2 or E3 has class type: overload resolution is attempted to select the best conversion from one type to the other.
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6)
失敗上記のすべての例であれば、そしてどちらもE2E3クラス·タイプを持っている:最初に、左辺値から右辺値、配列からポインタや関数ポインタへの変換が適用されます。その後、
Original:
If all cases listed above fail, and neither E2 nor E3 have class type: first, lvalue-to-rvalue, array-to-pointer, and function-to-pointer conversions are applied. Then,
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a)
E2E3の両方が、同じ型を持っている場合、結果はその型の一時prvalueあり、オペランドはE1を評価した後、選択されたものは何でもからのコピー初期化
Original:
if both E2 and E3 now have the same type, the result is a prvalue temporary of that type, copy-initialized from whatever operand was selected after evaluating E1
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b)
E2E3持っている算術演算子または列挙型:通常の算術変換が一般的なタイプにそれらを持って来るために適用され、そのタイプは結果です.
Original:
E2 and E3 have arithmetic or enumeration type: usual arithmetic conversions are applied to bring them to common type, that type is the result.
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c)
E2E3ポインタ、ポインタとNULL定数、または両方がnullポインタ定数、std::nullptr_tそのうちの一つであるなら、ポインタ変換と資格convrsionsが共通のタイプにそれらを持って来るために適用され、そのタイプは結果です.
Original:
E2 and E3 are pointers, or a pointer and a null constant, or a both null pointer constants, one of which is a std::nullptr_t, then pointer conversions and qualification convrsions are applied to bring them to common type, that type is the result.
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d)
E2E3メンバへのポインタ、またはメンバとNULL定数へのポインタです:その後、メンバへのポインタ変換と資格convrsionsは共通の型にそれらを持って来るために適用されるが、その型がある
Original:
E2 and E3 are pointers to members, or a pointer to member and a null constant: then pointer-to-member conversions and qualification convrsions are applied to bring them to common type, that type is the
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#include <string>
#include <stdexcept>
struct Node
{
    Node* next;
    int data;
    // deep-copying copy constructor
    Node(const Node& other)
      : next(other.next ? new Node(*other.next) : NULL)
      , data(other.data)
    {}
    Node(int d) : next(NULL), data(d) {}
    ~Node() { delete next ; }
};
int main()
{   
    // simple rvalue example
    int n = 1>2 ? 10 : 11;  // 1>2 is false, so n = 11
    // simple lvalue example
    int m = 10; 
    (n == m ? n : m) = 7; // n == m is false, so m = 7
    // throw example
    std::string str = 2+2==4 ? "ok" : throw std::logic_error("2+2 != 4");
}


[編集] 標準ライブラリ

標準ライブラリの多くのクラスは、関数オブジェクトとして使用するoperator()を上書き.
Original:
Many classes in the standard library override operator() to be used as function objects.
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テンプレート:cpp/utility/functional/function/dcl list operator()
削除されたオブジェクトまたは配列
Original:
deletes the object or array
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::default_delete)
所有者ベースのセマンティクスを使用してその引数を比較します
Original:
compares its arguments using owner-based semantics
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(機能)
2引数の和を返す
Original:
returns the sum of two arguments
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::plus) [edit]
2つの引数の差を返します
Original:
returns the difference between two arguments
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::minus) [edit]
二つの引数の積を返します
Original:
returns the product of two arguments
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::multiplies) [edit]
第二引数で最初の引数を除算した結果を返します
Original:
returns the result of the division of the first argument by the second argument
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::divides) [edit]
第二引数で最初の引数の除算の剰余を返します
Original:
returns the remainder from the division of the first argument by the second argument
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::modulus) [edit]
引数の否定を返します
Original:
returns the negation of the argument
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::negate) [edit]
引数があればチェックは等しくなります
Original:
checks if the arguments are equal
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::equal_to) [edit]
引数があればチェックは等しくありません
Original:
checks if the arguments are not equal
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::not_equal_to) [edit]
最初の引数かどうかをチェックしますが2番目の値より大きいか
Original:
checks if the first argument is greater than the second
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::greater) [edit]
かどうかをチェックし最初の引数が2番目の値より小さいです
Original:
checks if the first argument is less than the second
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::less) [edit]
最初の引数かどうかをチェックするには、2番目の値以上である
Original:
checks if the first argument is greater than or equal to the second
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::greater_equal) [edit]
最初の引数かどうかをチェックするには、以下第二に等しくなります
Original:
checks if the first argument is less than or equal to the second
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::less_equal) [edit]
論理積(AND)の二つの引数のを返します
Original:
returns the logical AND of the two arguments
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::logical_and) [edit]
論理和(OR)2の引数を返します
Original:
returns the logical OR of the two arguments
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::logical_or) [edit]
NOT引数の論理を返します
Original:
returns the logical NOT of the argument
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::logical_not) [edit]
returns the result of bitwise AND of two arguments
(パブリックメンバ関数of std::bit_and) [edit]
ビット単位のOR 2つの引数の結果を返します
Original:
returns the result of bitwise OR of two arguments
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::bit_or) [edit]
二つの引数のビット単位のXORの結果を返します
Original:
returns the result of bitwise XOR of two arguments
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::bit_xor) [edit]
格納された述語の呼び出しの結果の論理補数を返します
Original:
returns the logical complement of the result of a call to the stored predicate
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::unary_negate) [edit]
格納された述語の呼び出しの結果の論理補数を返します
Original:
returns the logical complement of the result of a call to the stored predicate
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::binary_negate) [edit]
格納された関数を呼び出します
Original:
calls the stored function
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::reference_wrapper) [edit]
lexicographically compares two strings using this locale's collate facet
(パブリックメンバ関数of std::locale) [edit]
タイプvalue_type
Original:
compares two values of type value_type
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::map::value_compare) [edit]
タイプvalue_type
Original:
compares two values of type value_type
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::multimap::value_compare) [edit]
関数が実行されます
Original:
executes the function
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::packaged_task) [edit]
エンジンの状態の進歩と生成された値を返します
Original:
advances the engine's state and returns the generated value
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::linear_congruential_engine) [edit]
ディストリビューションの次の乱数を生成します
Original:
generates the next random number in the distribution
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::uniform_int_distribution) [edit]
いくつかの標準ライブラリのクラスは、ユーザー定義の変換関数を提供します
Original:
Several standard library classes provide user-defined conversion functions
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テンプレート:cpp/utility/functional/function/dcl list operator bool
値が非ゼロであるかどうかをチェックします
Original:
checks if the value is non-zero
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::error_code)
値が非ゼロであるかどうかをチェックします
Original:
checks if the value is non-zero
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::error_condition)
BitSetの要素にアクセスします
Original:
accesses the element of the bitset
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::bitset::reference)
ベクトル<bool>型の要素にアクセスします
Original:
accesses the element of the vector<bool>
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::vector<bool>::reference)
管理対象オブジェクトが関連付けられているかどうかをチェックします
Original:
checks if there is associated managed object
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::unique_ptr) [edit]
管理対象オブジェクトが関連付けられているかどうかをチェックします
Original:
checks if there is associated managed object
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::shared_ptr) [edit]
格納された参照にアクセスします
Original:
accesses the stored reference
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::reference_wrapper)
value_typeにオブジェクトは、value返しに変換します
Original:
converts the object to value_type, returns value
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::integral_constant)
(C + + 11時まで)
(C + + 11以来)
チェックエラーが発生していない場合(の同義語!fail()
Original:
checks if no error has occurred (synonym of !fail())
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::basic_ios) [edit]
基本となる文字列型に変換します
Original:
converts to the underlying string type
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::sub_match)
原子オブジェクトから値をロードします
Original:
loads a value from an atomic object
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::atomic) [edit]
ロックはそれに関連付けられたmutexを所有しているかどうかをテストします
Original:
tests whether the lock owns its associated mutex
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::unique_lock) [edit]
別の型へのポインタにマネージポインタに変換します
Original:
converts the managed pointer to a pointer to different type
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(パブリックメンバ関数of std::auto_ptr)
コンマ演算子は、標準ライブラリ内のすべてのクラスでオーバーロードされていません。 boostライブラリはoperator,、boost.spiritでboost.assignを使用しており、他のライブラリ.
Original:
The comma operator is not overloaded by any class in the standard library. The boost library uses operator, in boost.assign, boost.spirit, and other libraries.
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[編集] も参照してください

演算子の優先順位

Common operators
代入 incrementNJdecrement 算術 論理 比較 memberNJaccess 他の

a = b
a = rvalue
a += b
a -= b
a *= b
a /= b
a %= b
a &= b
a |= b
a ^= b
a <<= b
a >>= b

++a
--a
a++
a--

+a
-a
a + b
a - b
a * b
a / b
a % b
~a
a & b
a | b
a ^ b
a << b
a >> b

!a
a && b
a || b

a == b
a != b
a < b
a > b
a <= b
a >= b

a[b]
*a
&a
a->b
a.b
a->*b
a.*b

a(...)
a, b
(type) a
? :

Special operators
static_cast別の互換性のあるタイプ
に1型に変換します
Original:
static_cast converts one type to another compatible type
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dynamic_cast派生class
に仮想基底クラスに変換します
Original:
dynamic_cast converts virtual base class to derived class
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const_cast異なるcvqualifiers
と互換性のある型に型変換されます
Original:
const_cast converts type to compatible type with different cv qualifiers
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reinterpret_cast互換性type
に型を変換します
Original:
reinterpret_cast converts type to incompatible type
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new割り当てmemory
Original:
new allocates memory
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delete割り当て解除memory
Original:
delete deallocates memory
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sizeoftype
のサイズを照会します
Original:
sizeof queries the size of a type
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sizeof...パラメーターパック(C + + 11以来)
のサイズを照会します
Original:
sizeof... queries the size of a パラメーターパック (C + + 11以来)
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typeidtype
の型情報を照会します
Original:
typeid queries the type information of a type
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noexcept式が例外(C + + 11以来)
を投げることができるかどうかをチェックします
Original:
noexcept checks if an expression can throw an exception (C + + 11以来)
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alignofタイプ(C + + 11以来)のクエリアラインメント要件を
Original:
alignof queries alignment requirements of a type (C + + 11以来)
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