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関数テンプレート

提供: cppreference.com
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C++言語
一般的なトピック
Original:
General topics
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フロー制御
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Flow control
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条件付き実行文
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Conditional execution statements
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繰り返し文
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Iteration statements
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文をジャンプします
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Jump statements
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機能します
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Functions
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関数の宣言
ラムダ関数の宣言
関数テンプレート
の歴史。インライン指定
例外仕様 (廃止予定)
noexcept指定子 (C++11)
例外
Original:
Exceptions
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名前空間
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Namespaces
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タイプ
Original:
Types
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decltype specifier (C++11)
指定子
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Specifiers
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CV指定
貯蔵期間指定
constexprの指定子 (C++11)
自動指定 (C++11)
alignas指定子 (C++11)
初期化
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Initialization
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リテラル
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Literals
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Expressions
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代替表現
ユーティリティ
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Utilities
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タイプ
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Types
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typedef declaration
型の別名宣言 (C++11)
属性 (C++11)
キャストします
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Casts
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暗黙の型変換
const_cast conversion
static_cast conversion
dynamic_cast conversion
reinterpret_cast conversion
Cスタイルキャストと機能
メモリの割り当て
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Memory allocation
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クラス
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Classes
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クラス固有の機能特性
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Class-specific function properties
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明示 (C++11)
静的
特殊なメンバ関数
Original:
Special member functions
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テンプレート
Original:
Templates
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クラステンプレート
関数テンプレート
テンプレートの特殊化
パラメーターパック (C++11)
その他
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Miscellaneous
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インラインアセンブリ
 

目次

[編集] 説明

テンプレートには、それを複数回書き換えを必要とせず、様々なタイプの仕事という汎用関数の設計を可能にします
Original:
Templates allow generic function design that work on various types, without the need of rewriting it multiple times
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[編集] 構文

[編集] 宣言

template < template_arguments > function_declaration (1)
export template < template_arguments > function_declaration (2) (C++11以前)
  1. テンプレート関数の宣言[1]
  2. エクスポートされたテンプレート関数の宣言。関数の実体を別のファイルで定義することができる。[2]

[編集] 引数

class identifier (1)
typename identifier (2)
integral_type identifier (3)
class identifier = type_name (4) (C++11およびそれ以降)
typename identifier = type_name (5) (C++11およびそれ以降)
integral_type identifier = const_expr (6) (C++11およびそれ以降)
1-2)
関数の内部でidentifierは、型として使用することができます
Original:
Inside the function identifier can be used as a type
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3)
関数の内部でidentifierは定数として使用することができます
Original:
Inside the function identifier can be used as a constant
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4-6)
デフォルト引数
Original:
Default arguments
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[編集] 特殊化

template <> ret function_name < template_args > ( func_args ) body

特殊化は特定のテンプレート引数に対しテンプレート関数の実装を変更します

[編集] 呼び出し

function_name < template_args > ( func_args ) (1)
function_name ( unambiguous_func_args ) (2)
  1. 明示的なテンプレート引数。func_args がテンプレート宣言の型 (template_args) に完全に一致しない場合、通常のキャストが行われます
  2. 暗黙的なテンプレート引数。関数の引数から推論されます。
    曖昧さが存在することができません
    Original:
    No ambiguity can be present
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[編集]

template<typename T>
struct S {
    template<typename U> void foo(){}
};
 
template<typename T>
void bar()
{
    S<T>s;
    s.foo<T>(); // error: < parsed as less than operator
    s.template foo<T>(); // OK
}


[編集] 参照

[編集] ノート

  1. テンプレート関数の呼び出し時に関数の実体が見えなければならない
  2. これは非常にまれにコンパイラに実装されておらず、使うべきではありません
    Original:
    This is very rarely implemented on compilers and should not be used
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Original:
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